site banner

Patient Education

Our Health Library information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Please be advised that this information is made available to assist our patients to learn more about their health. Our providers may not see and/or treat all topics found herein.

Category: Urinary system

Abdominal Pain, Age 11 and Younger
Covers possible causes of abdominal pain in children 11 and younger, including stomach flu, urinary tract infection, constipation, and appendicitis. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment tips.

Abdominal Pain, Age 12 and Older
Covers symptoms and possible causes of abdominal pain, such as peptic ulcer disease, indigestion, appendicitis, or stomach flu. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment tips.

Abdominal Ultrasound
An abdominal ultrasound takes pictures of the organs and other structures in your upper belly. It uses sound waves to show images on a screen. Areas that can be checked include the: Abdominal aorta. This large blood vessel passes down the back of the chest and belly. It supplies blood to the lower part of the body and...

Abdominal X-Ray
An abdominal X-ray is a picture of structures and organs in the belly (abdomen). This includes the stomach, liver, spleen, and large and small intestines. It also includes the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the chest and belly areas. Often two X-rays will be taken from different positions. If the test is...

Absorbent Products for Urinary Incontinence
Absorbent products are items that absorb urine, such as adult diapers, plastic-coated underwear, pads, or panty liners that attach to underwear. Most commercially available items are disposable (such as Depend or Poise). Some absorbent cloths can be washed and reused. Drip collectors that fit over the penis are also...

Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
Active surveillance is an option for some people who have slow-growing cancer that hasn't spread outside the prostate (localized). With active surveillance, you'll have regular checkups and tests. You won't have treatment unless tests show the cancer is growing. Some people will never need treatment. It may seem odd to...

Acute Kidney Injury
Discusses acute kidney injury (which used to be called acute renal failure). It means your kidneys suddenly stop working normally. Includes prerenal acute kidney injury. Covers causes like kidney or liver disease. Includes symptoms like little urine (oliguria) when you urinate. Covers dialysis.

Acute Kidney Injury Versus Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to function. To treat kidney failure effectively, it is important to know whether kidney disease has developed suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and...

Advance Care Planning: Should I Stop Kidney Dialysis?
Guides through decision to stop kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Discusses what happens after dialysis is stopped. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Albumin Urine Test
Discusses a test that checks urine for a protein called albumin. Covers possible kidney damage and diabetes. Explains how test is done. Discusses normal and abnormal values from the test. Covers what affects the test.

American Urological Association Symptom Index
The American Urological Association (AUA) has developed the following questionnaire to help men determine how bothersome their urinary symptoms are and to check how effective their treatment is. This questionnaire has also been adopted worldwide and is known as the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). It is...

Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease
What is anemia of chronic kidney disease? Anemia of chronic kidney disease means that kidney disease has caused your anemia. Your doctor will have ruled out other causes of anemia. Anemia means that you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your body's tissues. If your...

Angiogram
An angiogram is an X-ray test that uses dye and a camera to take pictures of the blood flow in an artery or a vein. An angiogram can be used to look at the arteries or veins in the head, arms, legs, chest, back, or belly. This test is done to look for problems in the arteries or veins. An angiogram is done for many...

Artificial Sphincter for Urinary Incontinence in Men
An artificial sphincter is a device made of silicone rubber that is used to treat urinary incontinence. An artificial sphincter has an inflatable cuff that fits around the urethra close to the point where it joins the bladder. A balloon regulates the pressure of the cuff, and a bulb controls inflation and deflation of...

Basic Metabolic Panel
Briefly discusses basic metabolic panel, a blood test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, and kidney function. Provides links to more info on specific tests such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and potassium tests.

Bed-Wetting in Children
What is bed-wetting? Bed-wetting is urination during sleep. Children learn bladder control at different ages. Children younger than 4 often wet their beds or clothes, because they can't yet control their bladder. But by age 5 or 6 most children can stay dry through the night. Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or...

Bed-Wetting: Should I Do Something About My Child's Bed-Wetting?
Guides through decision of when to do something about your child's bed-wetting. Includes common reasons and home treatment options for bed-wetting. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Behavioral Methods for Urinary Incontinence
Several types of behavioral methods are used for treating urinary incontinence: bladder training, habit training, biofeedback, and pelvic muscle exercises. People who have incontinence due to physical or mental limitations (functional incontinence) can try timed voiding and prompted voiding. Bladder training Bladder...

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with...

Bladder Cancer
Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Offers home treatment suggestions to manage side effects like nausea and trouble sleeping.

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys...

Bladder Pain Syndrome (Interstitial Cystitis)
Bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis) is a problem that causes pain in the bladder or pelvis. It also causes an urgent, frequent need to urinate. The problem is much more common in women than in men. To diagnose bladder pain syndrome (BPS),...

Bladder Stress Test in Women
A bladder stress test simulates the accidental release of urine ( urinary incontinence) that may occur when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or exercise. A Bonney test is done as part of the bladder stress test, after the doctor verifies that urine is lost with coughing. It is similar to the bladder stress test except the...

Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Test
Discusses blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test. Covers why and how it is done. Includes how to prepare for the test. Covers risks. Explains results of the test. Covers what affects results.

Body Fluids Tests
Blood and urine are often tested to find the cause of health problems. But other body fluids also can be tested. Most of these fluids help organs and joints—and the membranes around them—move smoothly. Sometimes a health problem can cause too much fluid to build up in part of the body. The fluid can be tested to look...

Calcium (Ca) in Urine Test
A test for calcium in urine is a 24-hour test that checks the amount of calcium that is passed from the body in the urine. Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot...

Care for an Indwelling Urinary Catheter
A urinary catheter is a flexible plastic tube used to drain urine from the bladder when a person cannot urinate. A doctor will place the catheter into the bladder by inserting it through the urethra. The urethra is the opening that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. When the catheter is in...

Caregiving: Adult Underwear for Incontinence
Adult protective underwear may be helpful for a person who has incontinence. A person who has incontinence has trouble controlling urine or stool. This underwear helps absorb urine and catch stool. There are different types of adult protective underwear. A washable kind may be useful when a loved one has trouble with...

Caregiving: Using a Bedpan or Urinal
If you are helping a loved one with a bedpan or urinal, try to be relaxed. Helping with a bedpan or urinal can be embarrassing for both of you. This may be especially true if you are caring for someone of the opposite sex. If you are calm and don't seem embarrassed, the person may feel more comfortable. To help...

Caregiving: Using a Bedside Commode (Toilet)
A bedside commode is a portable toilet. If you are helping a loved one use a bedside commode, try to be relaxed. Helping with a commode can be embarrassing for both of you. This may be especially true if you are caring for someone of the opposite sex. If you are calm and don't seem embarrassed, the person may feel...

Catheters for Urinary Incontinence in Men
Types of catheters include: Straight catheter. This is a thin, flexible, hollow tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. It allows the urine to drain out. A straight catheter is used for intermittent self-catheterization. Indwelling Foley catheter. This type of catheter remains in place continuously...

Central Venous Catheter: Changing the Dressing
These are general tips. Your nurse may change and care for your catheter at home. Or a nurse will teach you how to take care of your catheter. Be sure to follow the specific instructions he or she gives you. Call your doctor if you have questions or...

Central Venous Catheter: Flushing
These are general guidelines. Your nurse will teach you how to take care of your catheter. Be sure to follow the specific instructions he or she gives you. Call your doctor if you have questions or concerns. To keep your catheter working right, you will need to flush it with a heparin solution. A heparin solution is...

Central Venous Catheters
What is a central venous catheter? A central venous catheter, also called a central line, is a long, thin, flexible tube used to give medicines, fluids, nutrients, or blood products over a long period of time, usually several weeks or more. A catheter is often inserted in the arm or chest through the skin into a...

Childhood Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They...

Chlamydia
What is chlamydia? Chlamydia (say "kluh-MID-ee-uh") is an infection spread through sexual contact. This infection infects the urethra in men. In women, it infects the urethra and the cervix and can spread to the reproductive organs. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydia does...

Chlamydia Tests
Chlamydia tests use a sample of body fluid or urine to see whether chlamydia bacteria ( Chlamydia trachomatis) are present and causing an infection. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are used to find chlamydia infection. These tests use a sample of body fluid from areas such as the cervix, vagina, eyes, rectum, or...

Chloride (Cl) Test
A chloride test measures the level of chloride in your blood or urine. Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance. It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of your body fluids. Tests for sodium...

Chronic Kidney Disease
Discusses chronic kidney disease (also called chronic renal failure), which means your kidneys don't work the way they should. Discusses dialysis. Covers treating diabetes and high blood pressure, which cause most cases of chronic kidney disease.

Chronic Pelvic Pain
Covers pelvic pain that has lasted longer than 6 months. Discusses common causes such as endometriosis. Covers what increases your risk and offers prevention tips. Covers treatment with lifestyle changes, medicines, and surgery.

Circumcision
What is circumcision? Male circumcision is a surgery to remove the foreskin, a fold of skin that covers and protects the rounded tip of the penis. The foreskin provides sensation and lubrication for the penis. After the foreskin is removed, it can't be put back on again. See a picture of the penis before and after...

Circumcision: Should I Keep My Son's Penis Natural?
Guides through decision to have your son circumcised. Describes the circumcision process and what to expect after surgery. Lists common reasons for and against circumcision. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
Several factors determine whether you have a complicated urinary tract infection. You have symptoms, such as: A high temperature, greater than 101 F (38.3 C). Ongoing nausea, vomiting, and chills. Your condition getting worse in spite of doctor-directed home treatment. You have other risks, such as...

Complications of Enlarged Prostate
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rarely has complications. When it does, they are often due to severe obstruction of the urine flow. These complications include: Complete blockage of the urethra (acute urinary retention, or AUR). This results in a complete inability to urinate. It can cause kidney damage, which may be...

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
A comprehensive metabolic panel is a blood test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, kidney function, and liver function. Glucose is a type of sugar your body uses for energy. Electrolytes keep your body's fluids in balance. They also help keep your body working normally, including...

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan of the Body
A computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body. During the test, you will lie on a table that is attached to the CT scanner, which is a large doughnut-shaped machine. The CT scanner sends X-rays through the body area being studied. Each rotation of the scanner...

Cranberry Juice and Urinary Tract Infections
For years, people have used cranberry juice to prevent and help cure urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is limited proof that this is worth trying. Pure cranberry juice, cranberry extract, or cranberry supplements may help prevent repeated UTIs...

Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance
Creatinine and creatinine clearance tests measure the level of the waste product creatinine (say "kree-AT-uh-neen") in your blood and urine. These tests tell how well your kidneys are working. Another substance, creatine (say "KREE-uh-teen"), is formed when food is changed into energy through a process called...

Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer
Cryosurgery uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. It may be used to treat early prostate cancer. It's an option for those who can't have radiation therapy or a more invasive type of surgery. Or it may be used to treat prostate cancer that has come back after radiation therapy. During this treatment, very thin...

Cystectomy
Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is mainly used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) after treatment. Partial cystectomy takes out part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that has invaded the bladder...

Cystometry
Cystometry is a test that measures the pressure inside of the bladder to see how well the bladder is working. Cystometry is done when a muscle or nerve problem may be causing problems with how well the bladder holds or releases urine. Urination is a complex process. As the bladder fills, nerves in the bladder wall send...

Cystoscopy
A cystoscopy is a procedure that lets a doctor look inside your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tool called a cystoscope. With this tool, the doctor can look for kidney or bladder stones. The doctor can also look for...

Daytime Accidental Wetting (Diurnal Enuresis)
Daytime accidental wetting is much less common than bed-wetting. But about 1 out of 4 children who wet the bed at night also wet during the day. Knowing the cause of the wetting will help you and your child's doctor decide on the best treatment. Daytime accidental wetting is more likely than bed-wetting to develop...

Dementia: Bladder and Bowel Problems
Loss of bladder and bowel control (incontinence) can sometimes result from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Several strategies may help you deal with this problem: Encourage the person to use the bathroom on a regular schedule, such as every...

Diabetic Nephropathy
Discusses diabetic nephropathy, which means kidney disease or damage caused by diabetes. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including medicines, diet, and dialysis. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Dialysis: Measuring How Well It Works
Dialysis removes urea and other waste products from the blood. To find out how well dialysis is working, you will have blood tests that look at the level of urea in your blood. Usually these tests are done once a month, at the beginning of your session and again at the end. Two measures show how well dialysis is...

Diuretics and Potassium Supplements
Some diuretics can cause low levels of potassium. A delicate balance of potassium is needed to properly transmit electrical impulses in the heart. A low potassium level can disrupt the normal electrical impulses in the heart and lead to irregular...

Donating a Kidney
Kidney transplantation is the best way known to save a person's life after he or she develops kidney failure. In the past, kidneys were only taken from living close relatives or from people who had recently died. Transplants from living donors have a better chance of success than those from deceased donors. Also...

Drinking Enough Water
Water keeps every part of your body working properly. It helps your body flush wastes and stay at the right temperature. It can help prevent kidney stones and constipation. You lose water throughout the day—through your breath, sweat, urine, and...

Electrical Stimulation for Urinary Incontinence
Electrical stimulation is used to treat urinary incontinence by sending a mild electric current to nerves in the lower back or the pelvic muscles that are involved in urination. You may be able to provide electrical stimulation therapy at home using a unit with a vaginal or anal electrode. Timing and duration of therapy...

Electrolyte Panel
An electrolyte panel is a blood test that measures the levels of electrolytes and carbon dioxide in your blood. Electrolytes are minerals, such as sodium and potassium, that are found in the body. They keep your body's fluids in balance and help...

End-Stage Renal Disease
What is end-stage renal disease? End-stage renal disease means that your kidneys may no longer be able to keep you alive. When your kidneys get to the point where they can no longer remove waste, you may need dialysis or a new kidney. When you understand your options, you can make the choice that's best for you...

Enlarged Prostate: Bathroom Tips
The following tips may make it easier to deal with your benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. Practice "double voiding" by urinating as much as possible, relaxing for a few moments, and then urinating again. Try to relax before you urinate....

Enlarged Prostate: Herbal Therapy
Herbal supplements that may be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include beta-sitosterol, cernilton , Pygeum africanum, and saw palmetto. In general, the trials using these substances have been short, and self-reported improvement scores can be biased. Different preparations are available...

Enlarged Prostate: Should I Have Surgery?
Guides through decision to have prostate surgery for BPH. Lists benefits and risks of surgery. Discusses taking medicine to treat your enlarged prostate instead. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Enlarged Prostate: Should I Take Medicine?
Guides through decision to take medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or enlarged prostate. Lists common medicine choices. Discusses how to manage your symptoms at home. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

Foods High in Oxalate
Oxalate is a compound found in some foods, and it is also produced as a waste product by the body. It exits the body through the urine. Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. Foods high in oxalate include: Beans. Beer. Beets....

Functional Incontinence
Functional incontinence occurs when some obstacle or disability makes it hard for you to reach or use a toilet in time to urinate. It is often caused by: A problem with walking (such as needing a walker or crutches) that prevents you from reaching a toilet in time to urinate. A medical condition (such as arthritis)...

Genital Injuries: Urinary Problems
An injury to the genital area can cause severe pain. Usually the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. Severe pain does not always mean that your injury is severe. After an injury to the genital area, it is important that you watch for urinary problems. Other injuries that can cause problems with...

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys, which is one way to...

Gonorrhea
What is gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is an infection spread through sexual contact. In men, it most often infects the urethra. In women, it usually infects the urethra, cervix, or both. It also can infect the rectum, anus, throat, and pelvic organs. In rare cases, it can infect the eyes. Gonorrhea does not cause problems if...

Gonorrhea Test
Gonorrhea tests tell if a person has this disease. They look for the bacterium, or germ, that causes gonorrhea. Testing is done on body fluid or urine samples. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection. That means it is spread through sexual contact. It does not always cause symptoms. Tests used to find a gonorrhea...

Groin Pain
Many times mild groin pain is caused by a minor injury that you may not have even noticed. Home treatment is usually all that is needed to relieve your pain. Most of the time when a serious problem is causing groin pain, you will have other...

Hemodialysis
Discusses process of hemodialysis when chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury cause kidneys to lose ability to remove waste and extra fluid. Covers fistulas and grafts. Looks at what to expect after treatment. Discusses peritoneal dialysis.

Hereditary Kidney Cancer Syndromes (PDQ®): Genetics - Patient Information [NCI]
Kidney cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Kidney cancer (also called renal cell cancer) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the...

Home Test for Protein in Urine
If you have preeclampsia or chronic kidney disease, your health professional may instruct you to check the protein content in your urine at home. Increased protein is a sign that your kidneys are being damaged. To test your urine on a daily basis,...

Home Test for Urinary Tract Infections
Discusses test kits you can get without a prescription to use at home to check for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Looks at how test is done and how to prepare. Discusses possible results.

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer (Androgen Deprivation Therapy, or ADT)
Hormone therapy treats prostate cancer by lowering the level of certain hormones in the body. These hormones are called androgens. Prostate cancer needs androgens to grow. The main androgen is testosterone. Reducing the level of testosterone can slow the growth of prostate cancer and even shrink the tumors. The...

Hypospadias
What is hypospadias? Hypospadias is a male birth defect in which the opening of the tube that carries urine from the body (urethra) develops abnormally, usually on the underside of the penis. The opening can occur anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the scrotum. What causes it? In most cases, the cause of...

Interactive Tool: How Bad Are Your Urinary Symptoms From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?
Interactive tool to help you figure out whether you want treatment for urinary symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Provides links to more detailed info on BPH and decision tools for treatment options.

Interactive Tools
These Interactive Tools are easy-to-use personal calculators. Use any of them to start learning more about your health. Health and Fitness Tools Do Your BMI and Waist Size Increase Your Health Risks? How Bad Are Your Urinary Symptoms From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)? How Many Calories Did You Burn? Should I...

Intermittent Catheterization for Men
Intermittent catheterization programs (ICPs) are often used when you have the ability to use a catheter yourself or someone can do it for you. You insert the catheter—a thin, flexible, hollow tube—through the urethra into the bladder and allow the urine to drain out. It is done at scheduled times, and the catheter is...

Intermittent Catheterization for Women
Intermittent catheterization programs (ICPs) are often used when you have the ability to use a catheter yourself or someone can do it for you. You insert the catheter—a thin, flexible, hollow tube—through the urethra into the bladder and allow the urine to drain out. It is done at scheduled times, and the catheter is...

Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an X-ray test that provides pictures of the kidneys, the bladder, the ureters, and the urethra ( urinary tract). An IVP can show the size, shape, and position of the urinary tract, and it can evaluate the collecting system inside the kidneys. During IVP, a dye called contrast material...

Kegel Exercises
Kegel exercises make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These muscles control your urine flow and help hold your pelvic organs in place. Doctors often prescribe Kegels for: Stress incontinence. This means leaking urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, jog, or lift something heavy. Urge...

Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Describes kidney cancer. Covers symptoms and how kidney cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery and medicines.

Kidney Biopsy
Discusses kidney biopsy (also called percutaneous renal biopsy) done with a long, thin needle to remove a sample of kidney tissue. Covers how it may be done to check for kidney disease or after a kidney transplant. Explains how it's done, risks, and results.

Kidney Disease: Changing Your Diet
Discusses changing your diet to help protect your kidneys when you have kidney disease. Gives general ideas about how to follow the diet your doctor or dietitian recommends. Covers restricting salt (sodium), protein, phosphorus, and potassium.

Kidney Disease: Medicines to Avoid
Many medicines may impair kidney function and cause kidney damage. And if your kidneys aren't working well, medicines can build up in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your doctor may advise you to continue to take a medicine but may change how much you take. Or you may change to a different medicine. Don't...

Kidney Failure: Should I Start Dialysis?
Guides through decision whether to start kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Kidney Failure: What Type of Dialysis Should I Have?
Guides through decision about what type of dialysis to have for kidney failure. Explains the two basic types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Kidney Failure: When Should I Start Dialysis?
Discusses the decision about when to start dialysis. Includes what kidney failure is, the treatment for it, and reasons why you might or might not want to start dialysis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Kidney Scan
Discusses nuclear scanning test to check way kidney works or its shape and size. Also called a renal scan. Covers use to check for cancer or how transplanted kidney is working. Explains how camera scans for radiation to make pictures of kidney.

Kidney Stone Analysis
Covers test done on a kidney stone to find out what the stone is made of. Links to info on types of stones, including calcium, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. Explains that test can help doctor decide treatment or give info on preventing more stones from forming.

Kidney Stones
Explains why and how kidney stones form. Covers types of stones such as calcium, cystine, uric acid, and struvite. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. Offers prevention tips.

Kidney Stones: Preventing Kidney Stones Through Diet
Looks at eating plans for those who have had kidney stones. Explains what kidney stones are. Offers tips for preventing kidney stones, including drinking more water. Lists foods you should avoid.

Kidney Stones: Should I Have Lithotripsy to Break Up the Stone?
Guides through decision to have extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to break up kidney stones. Describes what lithotripsy is and when it is normally used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Kidney Transplant
Discusses surgery to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy one. Explains what a living donor is. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to picture of kidney transplant. Links to more in-depth info on organ transplant.

Laparoscopic Surgery
Laparoscopy (say "lap-uh-ROSS-kuh-pee") is a type of surgery that uses very small cuts. These cuts are called incisions. The doctor puts a lighted tube through incisions in your belly. This tube is called a scope. Then the doctor puts special tools through the tube to do the surgery. The surgery may be done to diagnose...

Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy (say "lap-uh-ROSS-kuh-pee") is a type of surgery that uses very small cuts. These cuts are called incisions. The doctor puts a lighted tube through incisions in your belly. This tube is called a scope. Then the doctor puts special tools through the tube to do the surgery. The surgery may be done to diagnose...

Living With More Than One Health Problem
Many people have more than one long-term (chronic) health problem. You may be one of them. For example, you may have high blood pressure and diabetes, or you may have high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart failure. When you have more than one problem, doctors call the health problems comorbidities. One health problem...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Discusses test (also called MRI scan) that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body. Covers why it is done, how to prepare, and how it is done.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Abdomen
Discusses test (also called MRI scan) that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the belly. Covers why it is done, how to prepare, and how it is done. Discusses results.

Male Genital Problems and Injuries
Male genital problems and injuries can occur fairly easily since the scrotum and penis are not protected by bones. Genital problems and injuries most commonly occur during: Sports or recreational activities, such as mountain biking, soccer, or baseball. Work-related tasks, such as exposure to irritating chemicals...

Medicines That Can Cause Acute Kidney Injury
Many medicines can cause acute kidney injury (acute renal failure), such as: Antibiotics. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, bacitracin, and vancomycin. Some blood pressure medicines. One example is ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril. Another is angiotensin receptor blockers...

Medicines and Urinary Symptoms
Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause urinary symptoms. A few examples include: Antihistamines. Decongestants. Opioid pain medicines. Tricyclic antidepressants. If you develop a urinary problem after taking a medicine: Call the doctor who prescribed the medicine to determine whether you...

Moisture Alarms for Bed-Wetting
Moisture alarms are the most successful single treatment for bed-wetting. They work best for older children who can hear the alarm and wake themselves. If attempts to use a reward system (motivational therapy), drink most fluids in the...

Motivational Therapy for Bed-Wetting
Motivational therapy for bed-wetting uses praise, encouragement, and rewards to help a child gain bladder control. It's about telling children that they have control of their bodies and encouraging them to take steps that bring about more and more dry nights. For best results, keep a record of your child's progress. And...

Multiple Sclerosis: Bladder Problems
A person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have difficulty emptying the bladder completely, because the muscle that helps to retain urine cannot relax (a form of spasticity). Sometimes urination can be stimulated by pressing or tapping the bladder...

Nephrectomy
Covers surgical removal of all or part of the kidney. Discusses why it may be done, such as for kidney cancer or to remove a damaged kidney. Looks at how well it works and the risks.

Nephrotic Syndrome
Discusses nephrotic syndrome, a sign kidneys aren't working right. Includes high levels of protein in urine, low levels of protein in blood, and high cholesterol. Discusses swelling (edema) and kidney failure. Covers causes like diabetes. Covers treatment.

Open Surgery for Kidney Stones
Discusses traditional surgery used to remove kidney stones. Covers why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers risks.

Orchiectomy for Prostate Cancer
Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles. The penis and the scrotum, the pouch of skin that holds the testicles, are left intact. An orchiectomy is done to stop most of the body's production of testosterone, which prostate cancer usually needs in order to continue growing. Simple orchiectomy is the removal of both...

Organ Transplant
Answers questions about organ transplants. Covers becoming an organ donor and getting on a waiting list. Covers tests used to see if you'd be a good candidate. Looks at medicines that you might take after a transplant. Offers tips for staying healthy.

Overactive Bladder
Discusses overactive bladder, a kind of urge incontinence. Explains what overactive bladder is. Looks at causes and symptoms. Covers how it is diagnosed. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Overflow Incontinence
What is overflow incontinence? Overflow incontinence means that you have the urge to urinate but can release only a small amount. This can be due to a weak bladder muscle or to blockage. Since your bladder doesn't empty as it should, it gets too full. It then leaks urine later, even though you feel no urge to urinate...

Pain Management
What is pain? Pain is your body's way of warning you that something is wrong. If you step on a sharp object or put your hand on a hot stove, the pain lets you know right away that you are hurt and need to protect yourself. You may have pain from an injury, after surgery, or from a health problem like cancer...

Pain Management Clinic
Chronic pain often requires both counseling and medical treatment, because it can have a wearing effect on both the body and the mind. At a pain management clinic, you can get multidisciplinary treatment from a team of specialists, including: Physiatrists. These medical doctors specialize in physical medicine and...

Pelvic Exam
Discusses complete physical exam of a woman's pelvic organs by a health professional. Includes info on exam of vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. Explains how exam is done. Discusses speculum, stirrups, Pap test, and reproductive health problems.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse
What is pelvic organ prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse means that a pelvic organ—such as your bladder—has dropped (prolapsed) from its normal place in your belly and is pushing against your vagina. This can happen when the muscles that hold your pelvic organs in place get weak or stretched. This is often due to...

Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Should I Have Surgery?
Guides through decision to have surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Explains symptoms and discusses several types of surgeries used for different symptoms. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Pelvic Ultrasound
Discusses test that uses sound waves to make a picture of organs and structures in the lower belly (pelvis). Covers transabdominal, transrectal, and transvaginal ultrasound. Discusses use to check for different cancers.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Nephrolithotripsy
Looks at procedures to remove kidney stones from the kidneys. Explains difference between nephrolithotomy and nephrolithotripsy. Looks at when each may be done. Covers risks.

Peritoneal Dialysis
Discusses peritoneal dialysis. Covers having a catheter and using dialysate solution. Discusses hemodialysis. Looks at what to expect after treatment, how well it works, and risks.

Phosphate in Blood Test
A phosphate test measures the amount of phosphate in a blood sample. Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most (about 85%) of the phosphorus contained in phosphate is...

Phosphate in Urine Test
The phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours (24-hour urine test). Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most...

Post-Void Residual Urine Test
The post-void residual (PVR) urine test measures the amount of urine left in the bladder after urination. The test is used to help evaluate: Incontinence (accidental release of urine) in women and men. Urination problems. An enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH). The amount of leftover (residual)...

Potassium (K) in Blood Test
Discusses blood test to check level of potassium (K) in blood. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

Potassium (K) in Urine Test
Discusses test to check level of potassium (K) in urine. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

Prostate Biopsy
A prostate biopsy is a test to remove small samples of prostate tissue to be looked at under a microscope. The tissue samples taken are looked at for cancer cells. For a transrectal prostate biopsy, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum. Guided by ultrasound, a spring-loaded needle is used to take samples from...

Prostate Cancer
Provides info on an initial diagnosis. Discusses diagnostic tests, including PSA test and digital rectal exam. Covers symptoms common to prostate cancer and other conditions. Discusses treatment with active surveillance, surgery, or radiation. Also offers prevention tips.

Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI]
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

Prostate Cancer Screening
The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test can help find prostate cancer early. But it may not help you live any longer than if you had no screening. And it could lead to harmful treatments that you don't need. Talk with your doctor about your health, your risk factors for prostate cancer, and the pros and cons of PSA...

Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

Prostate Cancer Screening: Should I Have a PSA Test?
Guides through decision to have a PSA test to check for prostate cancer. Includes what PSA results tell you and what they do not. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a...

Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic
Discusses prostate cancer that has spread or come back. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment choices and factors that will affect them, including age, PSA level, Gleason score, and how far cancer has spread. Covers end-of-life issues.

Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Integrative, alternative, and complementary therapies - Patient Information [NCI]
Men in the United States get prostate cancer more than any other type of cancer except skin cancer. It occurs mainly in older men. In the United States, about 1 in every 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. Most men with prostate cancer do not die of it. Complementary and alternative...

Prostate Cancer: Should I Choose Active Surveillance?
Guides you through decision to use active surveillance for men who have low-risk and for some men who have medium-risk localized prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against active surveillance. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Prostate Cancer: Should I Have Radiation or Surgery for Localized Prostate Cancer?
Guides you through choosing between radiation therapy and surgery (prostatectomy) to treat prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against radiation therapy. Also lists reasons for and against surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
Discusses prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to measure amount of PSA in the blood. Explains that test is often used for cancer screening or follow-up. Covers how test is done and how to prepare for it. Discusses what results mean.

Prostatitis
Covers the various types of prostatitis, including acute bacterial, inflammatory, noninflammatory, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Covers symptoms for each type. Discusses treatment for each type. Covers lifestyle changes, medicines, and surgery.

Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
Radiation therapy uses high doses of radiation, such as X-rays, to destroy cancer cells. The radiation damages the genetic material of the cells so that they can't grow. Radiation damages normal cells as well as cancer cells. But the normal cells can repair themselves and function, while the cancer cells cannot...

Radical Prostatectomy
Looks at surgery to remove the prostate gland in those who have prostate cancer. Covers traditional and laparoscopic surgery. Covers how well it works. Looks at risks.

Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP)
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no cause is defined as at least 3 separate episodes of abdominal pain that occur in a 3-month period. These episodes are often severe, and the child is not able to do his or her normal activities. It may affect up to 30% of children between the ages of 4 and 12. Symptoms of RAP are...

Renal Artery Stenosis
This guide covers the basics of renal artery stenosis, including what it is, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

Repair of Bladder Prolapse (Cystocele) or Urethra Prolapse (Urethrocele)
Two common forms of pelvic organ prolapse are bladder prolapse (cystocele) and urethral prolapse (urethrocele). A cystocele occurs when the wall of the bladder presses against and moves the wall of the vagina. A urethrocele occurs when the tissues surrounding the urethra sag downward into the vagina. Both conditions are...

Retrograde Pyelogram for Kidney Stones
Briefly discusses test used to see if a kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract. Covers how it is done and possible results.

Retropubic Suspension Surgery
Retropubic suspension surgery is used to treat urinary incontinence. It lifts the sagging bladder neck and urethra that have dropped abnormally low in the pelvic area. The doctor makes a cut (incision) in the belly wall to access the bladder and urethra. This surgery can be done by making one big incision (open surgery)...

Rhabdomyolysis
What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis (say "rab-doh-my-AH-luh-suss") is a rare but serious muscle problem. When you have it, your muscle cells break down, or dissolve. The contents of those cells leak into the blood. When it's in the blood, that material can travel to various parts of the body and cause problems. If...

Rye Grass Pollen Extract
Rye grass pollen extract comes from the pollen of rye grass ( Secale cereale). Rye grass pollen extract may affect the male hormone testosterone, relax the muscles of the tube through which urine flows (urethra), and improve how well the bladder can force urine out.

Saw Palmetto
Saw palmetto is a type of palm tree that grows in the southeastern United States. The berry of the saw palmetto plant contains a compound that may reduce the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. Symptoms of an enlarged prostate include dribbling after...

Sexually Transmitted Infections
Lists common sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, HIV, HPV (genital warts), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Covers safer sex. Offers prevention tips.

Sexually Transmitted Infections: How a Male Genital Exam Is Done
During this exam for sexually transmitted infections, the doctor: Looks for discharge from your penis. The doctor may put a thin swab into the urethra and take a sample of fluid and cells to test for infections such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Checks your testicles for swelling and tenderness. May look at the end of your...

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Symptoms in Women
If you develop symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), it is important to be evaluated by a health professional soon after your symptoms start. Symptoms of an STI include: A change in vaginal discharge (thicker, discolored, or bad-smelling) over a period of several days to 2 weeks. Pain, burning, or...

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Treatment
Treatment is available for all sexually transmitted infections (STIs), no matter what the cause, to relieve symptoms, even if a cure is not possible. Some, but not all, STIs are treated with antibiotics. Some of the most common STIs— chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis—are caused by bacteria and are treated and...

Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Discusses shock wave lithotripsy, a procedure that uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into smaller pieces. Covers how it is done and what to expect after treatment. Covers risks.

Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Discusses traditional surgery to remove an enlarged prostate. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks.

Sodium (Na) in Blood Test
A sodium test checks how much sodium is in the blood. Sodium is both an electrolyte and mineral. It helps keep the water (the amount of fluid inside and outside the body's cells) and electrolyte balance of the body. Sodium is also important in how nerves and muscles work. Most of the sodium in the body (about 85%) is...

Sodium (Na) in Urine Test
A test for sodium in the urine is a 24-hour test or a one-time (spot) test that checks for how much sodium is in the urine. Sodium is both an electrolyte and a mineral. It helps keep the water (the amount of fluid inside and outside the body's cells) and electrolyte balance of the body. Sodium is also important in how...

Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
The stages of chronic kidney disease are determined by the glomerular filtration rate. Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys. It is one...

Stress Incontinence in Men
Stress incontinence occurs when a man unintentionally releases a small amount of urine when he coughs, laughs, strains, lifts, or changes posture. It is most common after a man has had his prostate gland removed and there was damage to the nerves or to the external bladder outlet valve (sphincter). After a man's...

Stress Incontinence in Women: Should I Have Surgery?
Guides you through the decision to have surgery for stress incontinence. Explains causes of stress incontinence. Lists risks and benefits of surgery. Explains other treatment choices. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

Stroke: Bladder and Bowel Problems
Some people who have a stroke suffer loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence) after the stroke. But this is usually temporary. And it can have many causes, including infection, constipation, and the effects of medicines. If you have problems...

Suprapubic Catheter Care
What is a suprapubic catheter? A suprapubic catheter is a thin, sterile tube used to drain urine from your bladder when you cannot urinate. This type of catheter is used if you aren't able to use a catheter that is inserted into the urethra. The urethra carries urine from the bladder out of the body. An opening...

Surgery for Chronic Pelvic Pain
Laparotomy is a surgical procedure that is done by making an incision in the lower abdomen. This allows the surgeon to see and inspect the abdominal cavity for structural problems, sites of endometriosis (implants), and scar tissue ( adhesions). The surgeon can then remove implants and adhesions. The surgeon can also...

Syphilis
What is syphilis? Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. If it's not treated by a doctor, it can get worse over time and cause serious health problems. The infection can be active at times and not active at other times. When the infection is active, you have...

Syphilis Tests
Syphilis tests tell if a person has this disease. They look for antibodies to the bacterium, or germ, that causes syphilis. Some tests look for the syphilis germ itself. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. That means it is spread through sexual contact: vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Testing is done on blood...

Tension-Free Vaginal Tape for Stress Incontinence in Women
Stress incontinence in women can cause frequent involuntary release of urine during activities that put pressure on your bladder, such as coughing or laughing. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is designed to provide support for a sagging urethra so that when you cough or move vigorously or suddenly, the...

Total Incontinence
Total incontinence is the continuous and total loss of urinary control. One cause is neurogenic bladder. This is a neurological problem that prevents the bladder from emptying as it should. Spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and other disorders that affect nerve function can also lead to total incontinence. In...

Total Serum Protein Test
A total serum protein test measures the total amount of protein in the blood. It also measures the amounts of two major groups of proteins in the blood: albumin and globulin. Albumin. This is made mainly in the liver. It helps keep the blood from leaking out of blood vessels. Albumin also helps carry some medicines and...

Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. The renal pelvis is the top part of the ureter. The ureter is a long tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the...

Transurethral Incision of the Prostate (TUIP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) may be done to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The surgeon uses an instrument inserted into the urethra that generates an electric current or laser beam to make incisions in the prostate where the prostate meets the bladder. Cutting muscle in this area relaxes the...

Transurethral Microwave Therapy (TUMT) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
In transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), an instrument (called an antenna) that sends out microwave energy is inserted through the urethra to a location inside the prostate. Microwave energy is then used to heat the inside of the prostate. Cooling fluid is circulated around the microwave antenna to prevent heat from...

Transurethral Prostatectomy for Prostatitis
Briefly discusses surgery to remove the prostate gland through the urethra. Covers why it is done and how well it works. Lists risks.

Transurethral Resection of the Bladder
Transurethral resection of the bladder is a surgery to remove abnormal tissue (tumor) from the bladder through the urethra. It is also called transurethral resection of bladder tumor, or TURBT. A tumor in the bladder may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). This surgery uses a special tool to find and remove a...

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
During transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), an instrument is inserted up the urethra to remove the section of the prostate that is blocking urine flow. TURP usually requires a stay in the hospital. It is done using a general or spinal anesthetic.

Trichomoniasis
What is trichomoniasis? Trichomoniasis is an infection with a tiny parasite spread by sexual contact ( sexually transmitted infection (STI)). It is sometimes called a Trichomonas infection or trich (say "trick"). Both men and women can get a trich infection, but it is more commonly detected in women. Trich in pregnant...

Types of Kidney Stones
There are four main types of kidney stones. Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as...

Uremia
Uremia (uremic syndrome) is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury (which used to be known as acute renal failure). It occurs when urea and other waste products build up in the body because the kidneys are unable to...

Ureteroscopy
A ureteroscopy is a type of procedure. Your doctor may do it to remove kidney stones from one of your ureters. These are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Your doctor may also do it to help find the reason for a urinary infection or blood in your urine. Your doctor puts a thin scope with very...

Urethral Bulking for Urinary Incontinence
Urethral bulking to treat urinary incontinence involves injecting material (such as collagen) around the urethra. This may be done to build up the thickness of the wall of the urethra so it seals tightly when you hold back urine. Most bulking materials are injected around the urethra just outside the muscle of the...

Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women, the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long, and goes through the...

Urethral Sling Surgery
Urethral sling surgery is done to treat stress incontinence. A sling is placed around the urethra to support it and help it retain urine. Your urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. There are different types of urethral sling surgeries. The two main types of slings are midurethral...

Urge Incontinence in Men
Urge incontinence is a need to urinate that is so strong that you cannot reach the toilet in time. It can occur even when the bladder contains only a small amount of urine. Urge incontinence can be caused by bladder contractions that are too strong to be stopped by the bladder outlet valve (sphincter). This results in...

Uric Acid in Blood Test
The blood uric acid test measures the amount of uric acid in a blood sample. Uric acid is produced from the natural breakdown of your body's cells and from the foods you eat. Most of the uric acid is filtered out by the kidneys and passes out of the body in urine. A small amount passes out of the body in stool. But if...

Uric Acid in Urine Test
The uric acid urine test measures the amount of uric acid in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours. Uric acid is made from the natural breakdown of your body's cells. It's also made from the foods you eat. Your kidneys take uric acid out of your blood and put it into urine so that it can leave your body. But if your...

Urinary Incontinence in Men
Discusses urinary incontinence in men. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress, urge, overflow, total, and functional. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Urinary Incontinence in Women
Discusses urinary incontinence in women. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress and urge incontinence. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Urinary Incontinence: Keeping a Daily Record
Keep a daily diary of all liquids taken in and all urine released, whether voluntary or involuntary. Your health professional may also call this a voiding log, bladder record, frequency-volume chart, incontinence chart, or voiding diary. The diary...

Urinary Obstruction in Children
A urinary obstruction refers to anything that blocks, slows, or disrupts the normal flow of urine through the urinary tract. Obstructions can occur at any point in the urinary tract. They can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later. Causes of urinary obstructions in children include: Kidney stones. Kidney...

Urinary Problems During Pregnancy
Most women have an increased urge to urinate during pregnancy. This is a normal body response related to hormone changes that occur during pregnancy and to physical pressure on the bladder. Bladder infections are more common during pregnancy. When a bladder infection develops during pregnancy, you may have discomfort...

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 11 and Younger
Urinary problems and injuries are a concern in children. A young child may not be able to tell you about his or her symptoms, which can make it hard to decide what your child needs. An older child may be embarrassed about his or her symptoms. When your child has a urinary problem or injury, look at all of his or her...

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older
Most people will have some kind of urinary problem or injury in their lifetime. Urinary tract problems and injuries can range from minor to more serious. Sometimes, minor and serious problems can start with the same symptoms. Many urinary problems and injuries are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed to...

Urinary Problems and Prostate Cancer
Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

Urinary Symptoms After an Injury in Children
When your child injures his or her genital area, the pain can be quite severe at first. Usually, the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. The severity of the pain is not always an indication of the severity of the injury. After an injury to the genital area, it is important to watch for urinary...

Urinary System
Includes info on urine tests and urinary tract infections in children, teens, and adults. Also has links to stress incontinence and kidney stone info.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Older Adults
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older women and men. Factors that make older adults more likely to develop UTIs include: An immune system that isn't as strong as when the person was younger. A reduced ability to control urination and...

Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Discusses urinary tract infection in children 12 years and younger. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Urinary Tract Infections in Teens and Adults
Discusses urinary tract infection in teens and adults. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Urine Culture
A urine culture is a test to find germs (such as bacteria) in the urine that can cause an infection. Bacteria can enter through the urethra and cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). A sample of urine is added to a substance that promotes the growth of germs. If no germs grow, the culture is negative. If germs grow, the...

Urine Test
A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. It checks the color, clarity (clear or cloudy), odor, concentration, and acidity (pH) of your urine. It also checks your levels of protein, sugar, blood cells, or other substances in your urine. A urine test may be done to help find...

Urodynamic Tests
Urodynamic testing is a group of tests that show how your body stores and releases urine. The type of test varies from person to person. A simple urodynamic test is done in a doctor's office. Other tests may be done in a hospital or surgery center.

Uroflowmetry Test
The uroflowmetry test measures the rate of urine flow during urination. Results are usually given in milliliters per second (mL/sec). This test is sometimes used to evaluate the impact that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has on urine flow or to monitor the effect of treatment. Your doctor and studies about treatment...

Urostomy Care
A urostomy is an opening in the abdomen created by a surgical procedure (radical cystectomy) to allow urine to flow to the outside of the body. This may be needed when a diseased or damaged bladder has to be removed. The urostomy (or ostomy) creates an opening that is called a stoma. Wound, ostomy, and continence...

Vascular Access Failure
Dialysis is a lifesaving treatment when you have kidney failure. To keep up a regular dialysis schedule, you need a sturdy dialysis access where blood can flow in and out of the body. It must have a good, steady blood flow. Any type of dialysis access has some risk of failure. So it's important to always protect...

Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters, along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, prevent urine from flowing...

Voiding Cystourethrogram
A voiding cystourethrogram (say "sis-toh-you-REE-throh-gram") is a test that is done to see if there are problems with the urinary system and to see how urine flows out of the bladder. This test, also called a VCUG, uses contrast fluid and X-rays so the doctor can see how the bladder fills and drains. A VCUG can show if...

Voiding Log (Bladder Record)
Complete one of these records each day for several days, then take the completed records to your doctor. This information will help you and your doctor see how often you leak urine and what seems to cause the leakage. Name: Date: Instructions: Place a check mark in the appropriate column next to the time you urinated...

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney...